Technical support

Questions

DISTRIBUTION

 

1 - What are your methods of distribution ?
2 - Do you sell to end users ?
3 - Do you participate in public tenders ?

 

 

HEALTH

 

4 - I broke a thermometer containing mercury
5 - What is the chemical composition of the liquid used in red or blue filled thermometers ?
6 - inhaled the red or blue liquid of the thermometer
7 - I received a projection of red or blue liquid in the eyes

 

 

THERMOMETERS - PRACTICAL ADVICE

 

8 - Is the thermometer defective if the liquid column separates ?
9 - How to regroup a separated liquid column ? Cooling method
10 - How to regroup a separated liquid column? Heating method

 

 

HYDROMETERS - PRACTICAL ADVICE

 

11 - What is the purpose of the reference marks on the stem ?
12 - Does my instrument remain accurate if the reference marks are not superimposed ?

 

 

METROLOGY - THERMOMETER

 

13 - What is total immersion ?
14 - What is partial immersion ?
15 - What is complete immersion ?
16 - How to convert total immersion to partial immersion ?
17 - How to convert partial immersion to total immersion ?
18 - How to convert °C to °F and vice-versa ?

 

 

METROLOGY - HYDROMETER


Units of measure

19 - Density
20 - Specific Gravity
21 - % volume of alcohol
22 - Cartier degree
23 - Gay Lussac
24 - Richter degree
25 - Baumé degree
26 - Balling and Brix degrees
27 - Klosterneuburg degree
28 - Oechsle degree
29 - Twaddle degree
30 - API degree
31 - Temperature of calibration
32 - Superficial tension

 

 

CALIBRATION and TRACEABILITY

 

33 - To which Official calibration authority are your master instruments linked ?
34 - What is ITS 90 ?

 

 

CALIBRATION OF THE THERMOMETERS

 

35 - How are the thermometers calibrated ?
36 - Your certificate of calibration consists of what ?
37 - How long is your certificate of calibration valid ?
38 - What is the Bulletin of Traceability ?

 

 

CALIBRATION OF THE HYDROMETERS

 

39 - How are the hydrometers calibrated ?
40 - Your certificate of calibration consists of what ?
41 - How long is your certificate of calibration valid ?
42 - What is the Bulletin of Traceability ?

 


43 - THERMOMETERS - OFFICIAL STANDARDS

44 - HYDROMETERS AND ALCOHOLMETERS OFFICIAL STANDARDS

 

 

 

Answers

DISTRIBUTION

  

1 - What are your methods of distribution ?
As concerns the export market, our products are distributed by networks of distributors, wholesalers or importers.

2 - Do you sell to end users ?
In general, no, because the unit value of our products is too weak to justify direct sales to end users.
We trust that our distributors have sufficient stocks to answer your demands.
The following exceptions occasionally occur :
- If you are in a country in which we do not have an importer.
- If the distributor is unable to answer your demand.
At the time of return of a Bulletin of Traceability and/or in the case of re-controlling of instruments previously supplied by one of our distributors, there should be no ambiguity :
If the user contacts us directly, notably for technical reasons, the distributor that initially supplied the instrument is informed and the service is invoiced by the distributor.
To see left standardization of the thermometers or standardization of the hydrometers.

3 - Do you participate in public tenders ?
In general, no.
Except if we do not have a distributor in the country concerned or if the country concerned has laws forbidding an intermediary.

 

 

HEALTH

  

4 - I broke a thermometer containing mercury
Remove all non essential personnel and ventilate the affected area. Wearing suitable protective clothing, clean the area where mercury has been spilt ensuring that all droplets are recovered.
Use suitable tools such as a suction pipette or spoon.
Under no circumstances should mercury be allowed to enter into the drains.
The mercury recovered after spillage should be stored in a suitably adapted sealed container and sent to a specialized treatment centre for disposal.
We propose mercury thermometers in sealed packs of 15 pcs, containing a powder which can be used to decontaminate affected surfaces. Consult the supplier who provided you with these thermometers.

5 - What is the chemical composition of the liquid used in red or blue filled thermometers ?
These liquids are made from a distillation of oil. These are organic compound hydrocarbons to which a stain has been added.

6 - I inhaled the red or blue liquid of the thermometer
The effects are negligible at ambient temperature.
At high temperatures a vapour can be given of that can irritate the mucous membranes. In this case, avoid breathing the vapour and ventilate the affected area.

7 - I received a projection of red or blue liquid in the eyes
The product is mildly irritating, but does not cause lasting damage to the eyes. In case of irritation, it is necessary to rinse the eye thoroughly. If the irritation persists, consult a physician.

 

 

 

THERMOMETERS - PRACTICAL ADVICE

  

8 - Is the thermometer defective if the liquid column separates ?
All types of liquids used in glass thermometers can separate naturally. This separation can be due to transport conditions, unsuitable storage conditions, or incorrect handling after departure from the factory.
On arriving in your depot, the liquid can separate if the thermometer is stored horizontally.
It is therefore preferable to store the thermometers vertically, with the reservoir at the bottom.

9 - How to regroup a separated liquid column ? - Cooling method
Immerse the reservoir of the thermometer into a mixture of dry ice and salt or dry ice and alcohol. Maintain the thermometer in a vertical position until all the liquid descends entirely into the reservoir.
When achieved, swing the thermometer in a short arc forcing all the mercury into the bulb, and stand the thermometer vertically at ambient temperature.

10 - How to regroup a separated liquid column? - Heating method
Heat the reservoir gently (never use a naked flame) until the separated liquid and a part of the main column enter the expansion chamber. Do not completely fill the expansion chamber, as too much pressure could cause the instrument to explode.
Gently tap the thermometer to re-unite the liquid column.
Stand the thermometer vertically and allow to cool slowly.

 

 

 

HYDROMETERS - PRACTICAL ADVICE

  

11 - What is the purpose of the reference marks on the stem ?
On some instruments a reference mark is engraved on the glass of the stem and aligned with a reference mark on the scale. These marks enable the user to notice any movement of the scale.





12 - Does my instrument remain accurate if the reference marks are not superimposed ?
In the case that the reference marks are no longer aligned, the scale is not attached correctly to the stem. The instrument should be withdrawn from use.

 

 

 

METROLOGY - THERMOMETER

  

13 - What is total immersion ?
The thermometer must be immersed to the same level as the temperature reading. IMTJ is indicated after the reference of the thermometer






14 - What is partial immersion ?
The thermometer is calibrated to be partially immersed to a depth of 76 mm. (75 for ISO).
When immersed to a different depth to that for which it is calibrated, an Emergent Column correction must be made. IMPJ is indicated after the reference of thermometer.



15 - What is complete immersion ?
Very rarely used. The thermometer is completely immersed in the liquid.








16 - How to convert total immersion to partial immersion ?
In some cases, it is not possible to immerse a total immersion thermometer until the summit of the liquid column. Therefore a measure error will occur due to the part of the liquid column that is not immersed.
The emergent column correction C1 can be calculated with an accuracy of approximately 10% by using the formula :
C1 = k N (t1-t)
In the case of mercury k is a coefficient having for value 0.00016 °C-1.
In the case of thermometers filled with red or blue liquid, the value of k varies according to the temperature. As a first approximation, use 0.001 °C-1.
N is the number of degrees Celsius equivalent to the length of the emergent liquid column.
(t1-t) is the difference between the temperature t1 of the reservoir of the thermometer and the average temperature t of the emergent column.
Example : A thermometer is immersed until the 70 °C graduation, whereas the column of liquid reaches the 100°C graduate.
In this case, N equals 30°C (100-70). If the temperature t1 of the reservoir of the thermometer is 100 °C and the average temperature t of the emergent column is 58 °C, the correction then becomes : C1 = 0.00016 x 30 x (100-58) = + 0.2 °C

17 - How to convert partial immersion to total immersion ?
The correction of immersed column, C2, can be calculated with an accuracy of approximately 10% from the formula:
C2 = k (t2-t3) (t4-t5)
In the case of mercury k is a coefficient having for value 0.00016 °C-1.
In the case of thermometers filled with red or blue liquid, the value of k varies according to the temperature. As a first approximation, use 0.001 °C-1.
t2 corresponds to the reading at the immersion depth the thermometer is being used at.
t3 is the value of temperature extrapolated which corresponds to the level of immersion indicated.
t4 is the temperature as indicated in the following table :



t5 is the average temperature of the immersed column.
Example : The thermometer is immersed to the 80°C graduation - t2. The thermometer is calibrated for a partial immersion of 76 mm. The extrapolated temperature value for the instrument at 76 mm immersion is t3 : -17 °C. The temperature reading being 80°C, according to the table, t4 = 35 °C.
The temperature reading being 80 °C, one can assume that the average temperature of the immersed column t5 is the same. So t5 = 80°C. The correction then becomes : C1 = 0.00016 x (80-(-17)) x (35-80) = - 0.7 °C

18 - How to convert °C to °F and vice-versa ?
°F = 32 + (1.8 x °C) or °C = (°F - 32) / 1.8

 

 

 

METROLOGY - HYDROMETER


Units of measure

  

19 - Density
The condition of static balance of a floating hydrometer is that the level of the surface of the liquid cuts the stem so that the volume of the liquid displaced by the instrument has an equal mass to that of the hydrometer. The position of balance and, therefore, the indication of the scale, is therefore directly determined by the mass by unit of volume of the liquid.
In the international system (IS), density is commonly measured in kg/m3, however g/cm3 and g/ml are also accepted.

20 - Specific Gravity
Given the number of commercial transactions expressed in Specific Gravity, this unit is also admitted according to the following calculation : Specific Gravity = Density of the liquid at a specified temperature / density of water at a specified temperature.

21 - % volume of alcohol
The International Organisation of Legal Metrology (OIML) harmonised on an international level the basic data relating to the density and to the alcoholic strengths by mass and by volume of mixtures of water and ethanol. Alcoholic strengths are expressed in parts of alcohol per hundred parts of mixture. The symbol used is % Vol for the alcoholic strength by volume.

22 - Cartier degree
The Cartier scale was proposed in 1771 for the purpose of testing liqueur. Calibrated in alcoholic degrees determined at the temperature of 10 ° Réaumurs. The use of the Cartier scale is now forbidden in commercial transactions.

23 - Gay Lussac degree
The Gay Lussac scale replaced the Cartier scale in 1824. The scale indicates alcoholic strength by volume.

24 - Richter degree
The Richter degree indicates the alcoholic strength by mass.

25 - Baumé degree
Different Baumé degrees exist according to the nature of the liquid to be tested. The most commonly used are calibrated for liquids lighter than water (<1g/ml) according to the following formula :
Baumé = (140/Density at 60°F) - 130
In the case of liquids heavier than water, the formula becomes the following.
Baumé = 145 - (145/Density at 60 °F)
In the case of grape musts, the value 145 is frequently replaced by 144,32.

26 - Balling and Brix degrees
CJN Balling improved the saccharometer in 1843 to measure the content of sugar in fruit juice. One degree Balling corresponds to 1 g of sugar for 100 g of liquid. The Balling scale contained a slight inaccuracy, which was subsequently corrected by AFW Brix. The Brix scale can be calibrated at 60°F or 68 °F. To clarify, Brix = Balling = Plato, on the condition that the instruments are calibrated for use at the same temperature.

27 - Babo of Kleusterneuburg degree
A mustimeter elaborated in 1860 expresses the sugar content in Babo of Klosterneuburg degree.

28 - Oechsle degree
The Oechsle degree expresses the content in sugar of the grape musts from the following formula.
Oechsle = 1000 x ((density of must/density of water) - 1000)

29 - Twaddle degree
The Twaddle scale expresses the sugar content of a liquid using the following formula :
Twaddle = ((density of the liquid at 60 °F/density of water at 60 °F) - 1) x 200

30 - API degree
The API scale is based on the following formula :
API = 141.5 x [(density of water at 60 °F/density of the liquid at 60 °F) - 131.5]

31 - Temperature of calibration
The normal temperature of calibration for density hydrometers is 20°C (68°F).
When the scale is based on relative density, the temperature of reference is most frequently 20°C or 15.56 °C (60°F).
When a hydrometer is used at a temperature different to that for which it has been calibrated, a mistake due to the dilation of the instrument intervenes.
The correction (C) of temperature is calculated according to the following formula : C = 0,000 025 R (t0 - t)
R is the reading,
t0 is the temperature of reference,
t is the temperature of the measured liquid,
Conventionally, the accepted coefficient of thermal dilation of volume is 0,000 025/°C.

32 - Superficial tension
The reading given by a hydrometer depends on the superficial tension of the liquid in which it is immersed. Three superficial tension categories are normalized, the more frequently used are :
Low tension:Between 15 and 35 mN/m for density readings between 0.600 and 1.000 g/ml.
Middle tension: 55 mN/m for density readings between 1.000 and 1.300 g/ml.
High tension: 75 mN/m for density readings between 1.300 and 2.000 g/ml.
The use of a hydrometer in a liquid of superficial tension different from that for which it is calibrated, can lead to an error of more than 2 divisions.

 

 

 

CALIBRATION and TRACEABILITY

  

33 - To which Official calibration authority are your master instruments linked ?
All master instruments are traceable to a national calibration laboratory and signatory member of the Multilateral Agreement of Mutual Recognition concluded in the setting of the EA (European cooperation of Accreditation).

34 - What is ITS 90 ?
The International scale of Temperature of 1990 (ITS 90) was adopted by the International Committee of Weights and Measures at the time of its convention in 1989. This scale replaces the International Practical Temperature Scale of 1968 (IPTS 68).
This scale is the reference to which every measure of temperature must be traceable.

 

 

 

CALIBRATION OF THE THERMOMETERS

  

35 - How are the thermometers calibrated ?
The thermometers are calibrated in comparison to master instruments, traceable to a National Chain of Calibration, in a thermostated bath.

36 - Your certificate of calibration consists of what ?
Our certificate is a document that brings you our guarantee of traceability to a national chain of calibration. The certificate indicates the correction required to the readings of your instrument as well as the uncertainty of measurement according to ISO GUM (Guide of Uncertainty Measurement). On demand, proof of traceability to an accredited laboratory can be provided.

37 - How long is your certificate of calibration valid ?
During use small variations of volume, notably to the reservoir, can occur. This variation in volume is due to the repeated expansion and contraction of the glass, and is most pronounced during the first 6 months of the instrument being in service.
Certain standards such as ASTM D 1298 or BS 2000 recommend that the most precise thermometers should be recertified within a 6 month period.
In practice, the interval of calibration required is estimated for every instrument according to the evolution noted at the time of the successive standardisations. On no account should the interval exceed 5 years.

38 - What is the Bulletin of Traceability ?
The Bulletin of Traceability is a document supplied with every master instrument. It facilitates the management of the standardisation of these instruments by scheduling the dates of recalibration required, according to the frequency that you specify. When the date of recalibration approaches, you are automatically informed. All information concerning instruments supplied with a Bulletin of Ttraceability is stored in a data-base.

 

 

 

CALIBRATION OF THE HYDROMETERS

  

39 - How are the hydrometers calibrated ?
Hydrometers are calibrated in a homogeneous liquid of steady temperature, by comparison to a master instrument with the same sensitivity and same diameter traceable to a National Chain of Calibration.

40 - Your certificate of calibration consists of what ?
Your Certificate of Calibration is a document that brings you our guarantee of traceability to a national chain of calibration. The certificate indicates the correction required to the readings of your instrument as well as the uncertainty of measurement according to ISO GUM (Guide of Uncertainty Measurement). On demand, proof of traceability to an accredited laboratory can be provided.

41 - How long is your certificate of calibration valid ?
The interval of calibration required is estimated for every instrument according to the evolution noted at the time of the successive standardisations. On no account should the interval exceed 5 years.

42 - What is the Bulletin of Traceability ?
The Bulletin of Traceability is a document supplied with every master instrument. It facilitates the management of the standardisation of these instruments by scheduling the dates of recalibration required, according to the frequency that you specify. When the date of recalibration approaches, you are automatically informed. All information concerning instruments supplied with a Bulletin of Traceability is stored in a data-base.

 

 
 

43 - THERMOMETERS - OFFICIAL STANDARDS

  

- Laboratory thermometers : dilation of liquid in glass - ISO 386 / NF B 35-500
- Precision stem thermometers - long type - ISO 653 / NF B 35-502
- General use stem thermometers - ISO 1770 / NF B 35-506 / BS 1704
- Standard specification for ASTM thermometers - E 1
- Specifications - IP standard thermometers - BS 2000

 

 

 

44 - HYDROMETERS AND ALCOHOLMETERS OFFICIAL STANDARDS

  

-Hydrometers - Principles of construction and standardisation - ISO 387 / NF B 35-510
-General Use Density Hydrometers - ISO 649 / NF B 35-511 / BS 718 to DIN 12 791 ( partially equivalent )
-Specific Gravity Hydrometers 60/60°F - ISO 650
-Standard specifications for ASTM Hydrometers E 100
-Alcoholmeters and hydrometers for alcohol without incorporated thermometer - ISO 4801 / NF B 35-515 / BS 5470
-Alcoholmeters and hydrometers for alcohol with incorporated thermometer - ISO 4805 / NF B 35-516 / BS 5471

 

  

 

Other question ?

 

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